Educational Resources & RTI Database

Educational Resources

Learn more about our focus on retinal diseases through the educational site below.

Industry Association

Stay connected with the latest associations pertaining to ophthalmology and the expanding new research in retinal diseases.

The Macula Society

The Retina Society

Ophthalmology Innovation Source (OIS)

American Academy of Ophthalmology (AAO)

American Society of Retina Specialists (ASRS)

Retinal Diseases

Learn more about our focus on retinal diseases through the articles and links below.

Age-Related Macular Degeneration (AMD)

At a Glance: AMD

Early Symptoms: None
Later Symptoms
: Loss of the central vision you need to see details straight ahead, blurry or wavy areas in your central vision
Diagnosis: Dilated eye exam
Treatment: Dietary supplements (vitamins and minerals), injections, photodynamic therapy (injections and laser treatment)

Two Types of AMD: Wet and Dry

Most people with AMD have dry AMD (also called atrophic AMD). This is when the macula gets thinner with age. Dry AMD happens in 3 stages: early, intermediate, and late. It usually progresses slowly over several years. There’s no treatment for late dry AMD, but you can find ways to make the most of your remaining vision. And if you have late dry AMD in only 1 eye, you can take steps to protect your other eye.

Wet AMD (also called advanced neovascular AMD), is a less common type of late AMD that usually causes faster vision loss. Any stage of dry AMD can turn into wet AMD — but wet AMD is always late stage. It happens when abnormal blood vessels grow in the back of the eye and damage the macula. The good news is that treatment options are available for wet AMD.

Source: National Eye Institute

Learn more about AMD:

Dry age-related Macular Degeneration

Diabetic Retinopathy

At a Glance: Diabetic Retinopathy

Early Symptoms: None
Later Symptoms: Blurry vision, floating spots in your vision, blindness
Diagnosis: Dilated eye exam
Treatment: Injections, laser treatment, surgery
Learn more about Diabetic Retinopathy:
Diabetic Macular Edema

At a Glance: Diabetic Macular Edema

Symptoms: Blurry or wavy vision, dull color vision
Diagnosis: Dilated eye exam, pictures of the retina
Treatment: Medicines (eye drops or injections), laser treatment, surgery
Learn more about Diabetic Macular Edema:
Retinitis Pigmentosa

At a Glance: Retinitis Pigmentosa

Early Symptoms: Loss of night vision and side (peripheral) vision
Later Symptoms: Vision loss and blindness
Diagnosis: Dilated eye exam, electroretinography (a type of retina test), genetic test
Stargardt Disease

At a Glance: Stargardt Disease

Symptoms: Loss of central vision, sensitivity to light
Diagnosis: Dilated eye exam, photos or scans of the retina, genetic testing
Treatment: Vision aids, vision rehabilitation
Learn more about Stargardt Disease:
Geographic Atrophy

At a Glance: Geographic Atrophy

Early Symptoms: None
Later Symptoms
: Missing some letters while reading or finding that small portions of a person’s face cannot be seen, needing extra light for reading, having trouble doing things in the dark, colors appear muted
Diagnosis: Dilated eye exam, pictures of the retina

Treatment: There is currently no effective treatment for slowing geographic atrophy or reversing the effects of the condition.

However, if the geographic atrophy is somewhat off-center and has not compromised the detailed vision associated with the fovea (the region of the eye with the highest quality vision), your provider may recommend visual rehabilitation.

Learn more about Geographic Atrophy:

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